2 Meter Fm Bandwidth

15dBi 1/2 wave, 446MHz 5. License Free Two-way Radio. A commercial LDV with 1. It offers the lowest angle of radiation of any mobile VHF antenna and may very well be the best kept secret among those in the know. 3°, H-plane 2 x 43. The object performs stretch processing on data from a linear FM waveform. Includes all stainless steel hardware and til-over base. 4dBd gain with ground plane Unity gain without ground plane 11" tall 1/2 wave Works on any surface 160W Solid brass chromed NMO base Gold plunger type contact pin Stainless steel whip and spring. ) (Maximum power is 150 Watts. DAB & FM Radio. Isotron Antennas 6 Meter Isotron Antenna [ISO-6] - Size (H x W x D} - 16. 0dBi 5/8 wave. Figure 3: Signals from each quadrant are summed at a second-stage amplifier -+ G2-IA. 2 Meter Yagi Not currently stocked. The following is a list of all FM radio frequencies used in the UK. Normal TV sound is also broadcast using FM. Covers 130 Mc. The application relate to transfer present assignee and with the present patent application in the application of submitting on the same day (lawyer's case 2003-0056-01) that is entitled as " Method and Apparatus for Measuring Bandwidth of an Optical Output of a Laser ", its disclosure. Multi-band with antenna tuner. Shortwave radio bands are very similar in concept except there are multiple shortwave bands with their own names like 25 meters, 31 meters, 49 meters, etc. A modified AX−RadioLAB project, ax5043_analog_FM_demo, is used to demonstrate FM operation. For this operation, the permitted bandwidth is 6 kHz against a previous maximum permitted bandwidth of only 2. Second-order intercept points were determined using S-5 reference. This will give you a tuning range of +/- 48 kHz around the Local Oscillator ("Center") frequency. 025 Mhz 2 m Simplex 146. 2 meter FM only. 5"D (w/o knobs) weighing only 8. The DMR-6X2 is both VHF and UHF, Tier II DMR digital as well as FM analog with most features geared strictly toward ham radio use. Pengertian bandwidth dan fungsinya – Apa itu yang dimaksud dengan bandwidth? Mungkin jika kalian yang sering memakai jaringan komputer atau internet pasti sudah mengetahuinya, nah… pembahasan kali ini dibuat untuk kalian yang belum mengetahui apa itu bandwidth, berikut di bawah ini penjelasannya yang tentunya dapat kamu baca lalu kamu pahami. 1 MHz - 145. Heavy Duty construction that allows 120 MPH wind survival with 1/2" radial ice. Just picked up a 6m FM HT and now it's time to program it. FM function sw: mute out, mute in or fm out. The fractional bandwidth equals 2(fM - fL)/ (fM + fL). Different modulation formats will require different bandwidths for the same data rate. Resources listed under Antenna for 2 meters category belongs to Antennas main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. Yagi-Uda design dimensions can vary significantly with differences in element diameter, boom material, element-to-boom attachment method, and other factors that are ignored by this simple calculator. 6M 2:1 bandwidth approx 2. Bandwidth KHz. 300 or 75 ohm fm antenna. Filed Under: Access Network Tagged With. For an SWR of 2, the antenna has a bandwidth from 138 MHz to 151 MHz which is a pretty good result. Boom is 1" sq. 025 Mhz 2 m Simplex 146. 8kHz bandwidth from channel center. 5,1,2,4,5nm 190-1100nm Scanning Uv/vis Spectrophotometer,Biobase High Precision Uv/vis Spectrophotometer,Single Beam Spectrophotometer,Single Beam Scanning Uv/vis Spectrophotometer from Other Optics Instruments Supplier or. The highest frequency required to send a series of one's and zero's for an HD SDI bit rate of 1. The Kenwood TM-D700 radio. 3 Type Ill. PSK31 over FM in particular is quite strange and unusual, since PSK31 is designed to be a very narrow-bandwidth (31. A narrow band signal only has 2. The limited signal is FM -detected to produce a positive output for a mark condition and a negative output. 2 Range vs 5. 8 kc to 50 cycles at 6 db points over the six positions of the Selectivity switch. Whether you’re operating on 2 meters or you work in the 1. BTECH MURS-V1: MURS Radio. Boster 2 Meter Band, Booster 144 Mhz, Boster 2 Meteran yang bekerja pada frekuensi 144 Mhz VHF 2 Meter Band menggunakan teknologi Tabung dengan berbagai macam pilihan kapasitas daya lengkap dengan Power Supply tinggal colok listrik sesuai dengan selera - budget anda tentunya. 55 MHz FM Simplex is the primary VHF Ham Survivalist local channel. Questions tagged [bandwidth] Ask Question The bandwidth For example, FM on 2 meter generally uses about 3kHz, right? bandwidth. Allows the recording of 190 KHz of band to the computer hard drive centered at the radio VFO frequency. date by which no more new or modified operations on 25 kHz bandwidth channels may be initiated, and there are certain deadlines that apply to equipment manufacturers and importers. 2500 MHz Used for slow Morse transmissions: 145. The bandwidth of a radio signal is deter-mined by the amount of information in the signal being sent. Frequency / Preset Button 9. 150MHz Telegraphy (CW) and MGM. FM Performance Bandwidth. 520MHz and listen on 146. Then, it went to 15 KHz. Place a 1:1 Balun on the Antenna end of the Feedline. In internet access, wideband technologies provide much higher data rate (more than 50Mbps), whereas narrowband connections provide a slower data rate such as 56 kbps. This is achieved by slightly phase staggering the signal to each dipole. Remember, their old tube transmitter showed zero reflected power the entire time it was in use. 2 RF Bandwidth The signal generated in the stereo coder is frequency-modulated in an exciter. With 14 elements on a boom just over 15 ft. Available in 2M/70cm (UHF 420-450 MHz), 2M/1. 0 dBd gain that's almost 15. 250Mhz , but in ham talk this is easier said as simply. 975 DIGITAL MODES (1) 447. Worse, one manufacturer taunts the bandwidth of their high-powered coils as a selling point. FM generates upper and lower sidebands, each of which contain an infinite number of side frequencies. This page contain electronic circuits about Electronic FM transmitter Circuits. The SA604A is an improved mono lithic low-power FM IF system incorporating two limiting intermediate frequency amplifiers, quadrature detector, muting, logarithmic received signal strength indicator, and voltage regulator. 01uT to 1uT)/(0. To take the example of a typical broadcast FM signal that has a deviation of ±75kHz and a maximum modulation frequency of 15 kHz, the bandwidth of 98% of the power approximates to 2 (75 + 15) = 180kHz. Features a high-strength die-cast 3-hole aluminum base. Many RASON members truly enjoyed last month's collinear antenna. (1) The effects of amplitude noise are minimized, since the recovered audio is dependent only on the frequency, and not the strength. The FT-817 is advertised as a 5W radio. 05 meters 2 to 10 meters -0 +3% of length Length: 050 =. In addition, it is used to send signals into space. (2:1 Bandwidth is over 4 MHz. The FT-450D can also be used mobile with the MMB-90 convenient mobile bracket accessory. 6 meter band 1 MHz. 2 limits the bandwidth of a signal to “not exceed that of a communications quality A3E emission”. 900 Analog Repeater Links (4). 2; 40 meter double extended zepp, 165ft long at 60 ft high. try VR4 adjust for 2. Gain: 12,05 dBI (8,07 dBD) Gain: @ 18m heigth: 17,43 dBI Front to back: >28,1 dB Front to side: >23,97 dB Azimuth-Beamwidth: 45,2 degrees SWR bandwidth 2:1 1500 Khz SWR bandwidth 1:1 400 Khz Max Power: >10Kw Longest element: 5,58 meter Boom length: 13,00 meter Diameter: maco style. 2-Meter Repeater Output Frequency Standard Input Frequency Offset; 145. Cobham Antenna Systems FM / 2 Meter antennas offer a wide variety of fit, form and function options that will fit nearly every need. 000 Experimental Narrow bandwidth modes. An Optical Spectrum and Modulation Analyzer in one equipment ! Spectral resolution : 20 MHz / 160 fm Modulation Analyzer Bandwidth : 13 THz Symbol rate : >1000 GBaud. Boster 2 Meter Band, Booster 144 Mhz, Boster 2 Meteran yang bekerja pada frekuensi 144 Mhz VHF 2 Meter Band menggunakan teknologi Tabung dengan berbagai macam pilihan kapasitas daya lengkap dengan Power Supply tinggal colok listrik sesuai dengan selera - budget anda tentunya. 34-37 Get about 10dB from a modified Radio Shack FM broadcast receiving antenna. , the noise floor scales with the receive bandwidth (–174 dBm is the thermal noise floor at room temperature in a 1-Hz bandwidth). An intentional radiator that, at any point in time, has a fractional bandwidth equal to or greater than 0. 995 MHz / 320-349. Put a VHF wattmeter and a dummy load on the VHF-UHF port, radio in FM mode, should put out ~50w on 2 meters & ~35w on 440 band, with Power set at max. 198 Champion Court San Jose, CA 95134 USA Tel: +1-408-943-2600. ST & AM BW select button 13. As shown in Figure 2. This RF meter is specially designed for measuring or monitoring RF emissions from microwave ovens reliably. But it's disappointing. Modifications for the KENWOOD created 28-03-2002 from www. 25"H x 6"D: $750: $685: C100C30B: 30-100 Base: 5 MHz approx. If you're looking for an antenna that has blend of portable/compact size, low radiational angle and a wide bandwidth, then this is the antenna for you!. Then, connect the exposed wires at the bottom of the “T” shape to the FM connections. FM only: 110/220 vac: 19"W x 7"H x 17. Where: Δf = deviation BT = total bandwidth (for 98% power) fm = modulating frequency. This always raises a question about what the 2:1 or 3:1 bandwidth should be. 400 being the most popular working channels. Dual AGC (automatic gain control) stage: This automatic circuit design eliminates the need for a local and distant switch, altering the amount of relative gain that's added to the incoming signal. An inductor's reactance does not change so abruptly with changes of frequency and this option delivers an SWR bandwidth of 2. This is a casual use of my station. Users of satellites need to account for Doppler shift to ensure they stay inside the bottom band edge. THE SDI-2 METER MEASURES HD AND SD SDI DIGITAL SIGNAL LEVELS. C/F • Field of View 8:1 optics ratio • Emissivity set to 0. The highest frequency required to send a series of one's and zero's for an HD SDI bit rate of 1. So this example in very simple terms shows you the relationship between bandwidth and data rate. a) Calculate the length, in meters, of a dipole antenna that is designed to receive a station at AM 800 on the dial of an AM radio. To make an FM antenna using speaker wire, start by splitting 3 feet of wire and arranging it to form a “T” shape. The modes of transmission listed in order from narrowest bandwidth to widest bandwidth are: 1) CW, 2) RTTY, 3) SSB voice, then 4) FM voice. 9 mGauss • Single Axis Measurement • Frequency Bandwidth: 30 to 300 Hz (ELF frequency range) •. 11 protocols), Amateur Television and other high-bandwidth activities. This dual band filter is made of two-inch extruded aluminum cavities and will reduce intermod in the 2-meter band and the 70 cm band. kHz Indicates kilohertz while in MW,SW and LW bands ,MHZ indicates Megahertz while in FM and Air band 6. 5 kHz deviation, resulting in 12 kHz to 15 kHz bandwidth. Constructed out of a combination of 3/4 inch and 1/2 inch copper tubing. Between 144 MHz and 146 MHz, antenna has an SWR less than 1. SPECIFICATIONS FOR: XG-15P PORTABLE TWO-WAY RADIO RECEIVER Frequency Bands VHF UHF 700/800 MHz Frequency Ranges (MHz) 136-174 440-512 768-776, 851-861 Frequency Separation (MHz) Full Bandwidth Full Bandwidth N/A. 75G (EDGE), 3G (UMTS), HSDPA (H/3. J-POLE BASE ANTENNA 2 meter 70cm Dual Band Heavy Duty Amateur Ham Radio Scanner - $38. Remember, their old tube transmitter showed zero reflected power the entire time it was in use. 5G) by Antiskunk XDA Developers was founded by developers, for developers. , just like the "ghosts" in TV reception (before cable). And that’s all there is to it! This is a great first antenna! Your next step, after getting some air time, will be to insert some traps in that dipole so you can use it on 20-meters. Lamp sw: hi or lo. The distance between one point to another adjacent point in a wave is known as the wavelength. 900 band 12 MHz. 2 MHz, since my sweeper was acting up and I couldn't sweep the response while tuning. Forget about measuring your cell signal strength using just dots or bars - this simple hack allows you to see the actual signal strength your iPhone. From this we can conclude that this splitter is quite usable from the middle of the HF spectrum through at least 2 meters - and is probably usable through 70cm. This is an excerpt from our book on RTL-SDR which we've decided to post given that many new users struggle to understand all the settings in SDR#. 8 kHz filter system so that some of the highs are attenuated because they are not needed in a communications system, the voice power is contained in the lower frequencies anyway. So the bit rate is (2/T) bits/second. 15dBi 1/2 wave, 446MHz 5. 100 National CW Calling Frequency (2) 432. The Reddit thread had the title: "Why are FM radio frequencies always listed with odd decimals (. The 2-meter amateur radio band is a portion of the VHF radio spectrum, comprising frequencies stretching from 144 MHz to 148 MHz in International Telecommunication Union region (ITU) Regions 2 (North and South America plus Hawaii) and 3 (Asia and Oceania) and from 144 MHz to 146 MHz in ITU Region 1 (Europe, Africa, and Russia). 2° ,Rear protection 16 dB, Average stray radiation, E-pla. Compared to the LA1140, the LA1145, 1145M offer: 1 Improved signal meter output linearity; 2 Improved band mute temperature stability; 3 Improved S/N ratio; 4 Improved sound quality at weak signal. Antenna projects for 144 MHz category is a curation of 148 web resources on , OCF 2 Meter Sleeve Dipole Antenna, Simple VHF Antenna, Dish antenna for 2 meters band. 9875 Mhz 2 m Simplex 146. 5 to 108 MHz) bands is mandatory in all territories. The FCC sets a block of frequencies for certain uses and the bandwidth of the FM Stereo signal is around 250 kHz. 2 RF Bandwidth The signal generated in the stereo coder is frequency-modulated in an exciter. Receiver bandwidth was assumed to be 2. The satellite operates using ultraviolet frequencies D. AO-27 = 22825 NODES-2 = 41477 SNUSAT-1b = 42727 NUDTSat = 42787 1KUNS-PF = 43466 TBEx-A = 44356 IO-26 = 22826 NODES-1 = 41478 SNUSAT-1 = 42733 SUCHAI = 42788 UBAKUSAT = 43467 Sokrat = 44404 SOMP = 39134 HAVELSAT = 42700 CAS-4B = 42759 PicSat = 43132 SNUGLITE = 43784 SEAM-2. This is an excerpt from our book on RTL-SDR which we've decided to post given that many new users struggle to understand all the settings in SDR#. 9 mGauss • Single Axis Measurement • Frequency Bandwidth: 30 to 300 Hz (ELF frequency range) •. Additional stand-alone 6. The limited signal is FM -detected to produce a positive output for a mark condition and a negative output. The Slingbox is only one example of why the absence of a central bandwidth meter for your account is not inconvenient, but a central flaw in Comcast’s cap. The spec table states the capacitive load drive of the ADA4807-2 is 15pF. 2375 MHz FM Internet voice gateway (IARU common channel) 145. The Q1 transistor is produces Carrier frequency. The total bandwidth dedicated to FM radio ranges from 88 to 108 MHz. 340 MHz IN/OH W9NTP & W8ZCF Every day 6 pm EST 145. This can be demonstrated on a 2 meter handheld radio if you have an interest to see it; if you transmit on 146. Note that all modern transceivers will automatically select the proper offset for the frequency you use. It has little or no effect on I 1 and I 2 currents. This cable has a diameter of approximately 1. FM only: 110/220 vac: 19"W x 7"H x 17. It is one of very few ham radio 2 meter frequencies widely coordinated for FM-Simplex-only throughout USA. Director (DIR) = 0. Tuning Scale: Analogue. The PROMAX HD RANGER Eco Field Strength Meter and Spectrum Analyzer is a universal field strength meter that covers a comprehensive mix of broadcast standards around the globe. The price for the narrow bandwidth is slightly higher loss, about 1. 555 MHz TX Temple Sunday 9:00 pm PT 144. There are probably many boatanchor 2 meter AM rigs that have only found use as iconic shelf queens and this may go a long way in getting them up and running on a regular basis. Reflected power is the power wasted out of the forward power. New; Amplifiers requires membership for participation - click to join +. An Isotron Antenna Solves Virtually Any Restricted Space Problem - For example, a 40 Meter Isotron measures only 22 inches x 16 inches x 15 inches! Easy, Quick, and Simple Installation Tunes and Performs Without Radials or Antenna Tuners. The 2-meter amateur radio band is a portion of the VHF radio spectrum, comprising frequencies stretching from 144 MHz to 148 MHz in International Telecommunication Union region Regions 2 and 3 and from 144 MHz to 146 MHz in ITU Region 1. The meter is now showing your SWR on channel one. AX5043 Use as Analog FM Transceiver Introduction This application note describes how to use the AX5043 as an analog FM half−duplex transceiver. Description Necessary bandwidth. HP/Agilent 34401A Multimeter will measure AC (true RMS) and DC volts 2 and 4 wire Ohms, frequency and period, diode check and a number of other things. 995 MHz / 320-349. For this month we wanted to explore how much bandwidth is taken up by a Ham Band FM signal as compared to SSB and CW. FM tuning meter. This sketch shows a semi-exploded view of the antenna. For AM 800, the transmit frequency is 800 kHz, so wavelength is λ = c / f = 3x108 / 800x103 = 375 m For a dipole antenna, antenna length is λ/2 = 187. Extended Double Zepp – Longer than a dipole (5/8 wave or longer). Power Output 200+ Watts PeP Modes AM / FM / CW / USB / LSB Frequency Range 10 Meter 28~29 MHz & 12 Meter 25~26 MHz Length 10 1/8" from SO-239 to bezel Length 11 1/8" from SO-239 to control knobs Width 7 7/8" Height 2 7/8" Current Draw 40 Amp Fuse Size 50 Amp Microphone Pin-Out 6. com for assistance. 25"H x 6"D: $750: $685: C100C30B: 30-100 Base: 5 MHz approx. 66 meters, Reflector to Dipole Spacing = 0. Access This Document. Designed to provide 2. 4 release builds are now available on the CubicSDR GitHub Releases page: Changes since 0. If a PSK31 modulated audio signal is now used to modulate the FM transmitter, the bandwidth will behave accordingly. Frequency modulation is widely used for FM radio broadcasting. 75', Black, 1000 Watt Max, Twin-Wire Winding Logarithmic Loaded, 26. Standard lengths: 1 or 2 meters (custom lengths available). 500 MHZ utilize a "low in-high out" configuration, on. By John Portune W6NBC. With I 4 reduced to nearly zero, I 2 » I 3. The 4-metre band has a unique character and because very few countries have an allocation there, very little dedicated commercial amateur equipment is available. Where: Δf = deviation BT = total bandwidth (for 98% power) fm = modulating frequency. Receiver bandwidth was assumed to be 2. 035 meters (try it on the calculator but be sure to click on Full. Tags: vhf uhf frequency modulation arrl chapter 2 arrl module 3. The value of G 3 is fixed at unity. Reflector Length = 0. The caveats are 1, 2, and/or 10, depending on the exact frequency range. Ext am antenna. The A1483S is the low priced quality leader for Packet, FM or even portable use. 10 is the part that limits Novices and Techs to SSB in the 28. Commercial FM broadcasting carries 'baseband' information (modulating frequencies) up to about 70 KHz, has a peak deviation of 75 KHz, and can occupy a bandwidth of up to 300 KHz. The Firestik 2-Meter antenna is an omni-directional antenna for the 144 to 148 MHz, 2 meter amateur band. 7dB(v) of gain from a 50 ohm source. General Communication Technician - Level 2 (GCT2) Competency Requirements The General Communications Technician Level 2 certification is a journeyman level program modeled after wide-. An extremely stable CW oscillator is used for carrier injection. By making the transmitter signal much wider than the modulation signal bandwidth there is a process gain that has the same effect as using more RF power or an antenna with gain. ) button rf gain control squelch control external antenna sockets system code setting check the system code setting. While narrower bandwidths still increase selectivity over wider ones, the trade-off when reducing FM bandwidth is not reduced high frequency response per se…it is increased distortion. While holding the unit in this transmit mode, adjust the meter needle to the set position using the Set or Adjust knob on the meter. The case above would be typical when the two stations are in the same geographic region with typical late afternoon propagation on 75 meters, or daytime conditions on 40 meters. CubicSDR 0. Hook a mixer AUX out via balanced 1/4 TRS to flex 6300. AM signal strength meter. RF Frequecy range: 100MHz to 8GHz (RF meter), (-60dBm to +5dBm),(0. The "bandwidth" of your transmission is limited to 200 KHz, centered on the actual operating frequency. 475 MHz IN Indianapolis IN W9VMT Every day 9:00 pm CT 147. (OR) 1200 to 2400 bits per second. The distance between one point to another adjacent point in a wave is known as the wavelength. 5 MHz subband. 505 Mhz 440 FM Call 446. located in the ISS FGB Service Module (Zarya), supports 2 meter (144-146 MHz) and 70 cm (435-438 MHz) operation. Cebik, W4RNL. The current S Meter Lite self-extracting download file is approximately 600 Kilobytes, which typically requires approximately 2 minutes of transfer time (at 28. 45 – V V 13– 100 V in = 100dBµ, Pin13 Voltage 4. 3 include: – Update to wxWidgets 3. TX FM after modification (export): 50-54 MHz / 70-77 MHz / 140-170 MHz / 420-470 MHz RX FM: 50-54. Being energy-efficient, it offers longer battery life. Numeric Keypad 10. A balun or Line Isolator substantially reduces I 4 current. Dipole Antenna Calculator. FM/Shortwave Telescopic Antenna 3. On the VHF-UHF bands, the grouping of modes is slightly different. This can be overridden, but bearing in mind the limited battery capacity this may not be a good idea. This meter will show you which areas are above or below 2. 5 meters -0 +. Access This Document. Record this reading on your paper to the nearest 1/10th. Frequency modulated (FM) 2. C/F • Field of View 8:1 optics ratio • Emissivity set to 0. Measurement range 0 to 1. Output level control. 6% without the punitive losses of the stub; it also offers the flexibility to place the loading somewhere other than at the centre of the dipole with further improvements in bandwidth. There is some debate as to the effectiveness of changing a scanners bandwidth to narrow. 23 Wind Rating - 85 Pattern - Omni * Bandwidth is within 2:1 SWR. 000 National FM Calling Frequency (2) 446. Special Functions: Shortwave Dual Conversion Frequency Range : FM: 87 - 108 MHz MW (AM): 52 5 1710 kHz SWI: 5. 375 FM Remote Base (Uncoordinated) 446. 2 GHz measurement bandwidth (UHV-120, Polytec GmbH) is the highest bandwidth optical instrument currently available to measure MEMS motion. There is a wealth of information on the web regarding BPSK (Binary PSK) and QPSK (Quadrature PSK) Because PSK31 has a bandwidth of only 31Hz, many signals can fit into the same bandwidth that would be occupied by an SSB signal (2. FM DEVIATION: Mode to FM MIKE GAIN to maximum. How many megahertz in 1 wavelength in meters? The answer is 299. > On Jul 19, 2016, at 3:50 PM, mike <[hidden email]> wrote: > > I have a K3 with the 2 meter module and second receiver installed. (OR) 1200 to 2400 bits per second. 975 Mhz 2 m Simplex 146. It is one of very few ham radio 2 meter frequencies widely coordinated for FM-Simplex-only throughout USA. Hence, a narrow band FM wave can be expressed mathematically as under, The (-) sign associated with the LSB represents a phase shift of 180 o. If you use Winlink email, or correspond regularly with someone who does, please donate to ARSFI. This can be overridden, but bearing in mind the limited battery capacity this may not be a good idea. And thanks to 2-slot TDMA, it is possible to obtain 2 talk paths within an analog 12. All amateurs that have privileges in these bands use them for a variety of activities such as 2 meter FM repeater usage, SSB communications, satellite communications and digital communications such as packet. exe file to start your installation. Providing up to five watts of power output, the FT-817 is designed for operation on the 160-10 meter HF bands, plus the 6 meter, 2 meter, and 70 cm bands. 5W on battery power. The stressed design allows the antenna to be light weight yet strong. 400 MHz) 147. The optical bandwidth meter that is used for very narrow bandwidth Laser emission light. ) 5 AM Bandwidth - bandwidth of an AM signal = 2x bandwidth of modulating signal, and covers a range centered on carrier frequency • BW total = 2*BW modulating-signal • example: AM radio the bandwidth of an audio signal (speech only) is 5 kHz ⇒ each AM radio station needs a min bandwidth of 10 kHz AM stations are allowed carrier frequencies anywhere. F – IF digital filter bandwidth (0-15 FM, 16-30 AM, negative number – adaptive bandwidth) F15 – set the widest FM filter bandwidth F-1 – set adaptive bandwidth; A – AGC threshold level A0 – highest A1 – high A2 – medium A3 – low; D – de-emphasis mode D0 – 50µs D1 – 75µs D2 – off; M – demodulation mode M0 – FM M1. Or tune by clicking/dragging/scrollwheel on the frequency scale. 5 meters 700 = 7 meters 300 = 2 meters 800 = 8 meters 350 = 3. 7 MHz (40m) Necessary Bandwidth UK Usage; 7,025-7,040: 200 Hz: Telegraphy. 5"D: $1995: $1895: C300C10R or P: 10-300 Continuous: 5 MHz approx. On the other hand if you're using a wide FM receive bandwidth and the mode is narrow FM, you may not be able to make out the signal at all and there could be interference from. These features allow the operator to transmit High quality digital voice simultaneously along with Digital Data, and a High Rate (Data FR Mode) dedicated Digital Data mode that provides a method of transmitting Images, Text message and Telemetry Data at a high rate. The SA615 is an IF signal processing system suitable for second IF or single conversion systems with input frequency as high as 1GHz. 040 500 All narrow band modes 7. The FM band used in broadcast is generally called wide-FM, or W-FM. 5 MHz Receiver for OMA-2500 station · FM Receiver with Auto-scan · 220 MHz to 400 MHz Air-band Scanner · HF Regenerative Receiver with Dual-Gate MOSFET · Simple FM Receiver with Audio Amplifier · 6m / 2m FM Receiver · 20m DCR with Active Filter. 220 band 1. 5W on battery power. 5G) by Antiskunk XDA Developers was founded by developers, for developers. How many megahertz in 1 wavelength in meters? The answer is 299. Most FM repeaters use narrow bandwidth, about 10KHz wide. 5 New rigs have 5 KHz tuning. I have used a 5W 2-way handheld radio at 450 MHz to talk to a. 100 National CW Calling Frequency (2) 432. 611 MHz or 611 kHz. The j-pole in the attic will be ~4 meters off the ground. Antenna pattern The antenna pattern plotting function requires a rotator with full 360° turn and quite linear rotation speed. 99, 1KW for $329. So the bit rate is (2/T) bits/second. (3/2 λ) doublet with 31 (1/4 λ) ft of ladder line, then fed with coax. Made From a TV Satellite Dish. Dipole Antenna Calculator. Inject audio signal of 600hz 30mV (-18 dBm) at MIC jack. The Firestik 2-Meter antenna is an omni-directional antenna for the 144 to 148 MHz, 2 meter amateur band. High Performance 80 Meter Transmitting Antennas 65 foot vertical with 30-60 shallow buried 65 foot radials good performance if a high dipole isn't feasible High horizontally polarized dipole at least 70-100 feet high easily provides 6 dB of ground gain - for free! Horizontally polarized 2 or 3 element Yagi, 2 element quad or Moxon Rectangle. That means that nearly all of the I 2 current is radiated by the antenna, and none by the feed line. The construction quality of McIntosh audio cables has to be of the highest order since they are built to match the renowned longevity of McIntosh products. UHF/VHF Operating Practices Typically, frequencies above 50 Mhz are referred to the UHF / VHF / SHF bands. 485 Giga-Bits, is 742. 495 MHz Bandwidth Range 1 kHz to 5 MHz in a 1, 2, 5 sequence (maximum bandwidth is the selective span) Power Bandwidth Display Range-137 dBm to +43 dBm Power. 500: digital (2) 144. Antenna projects for 144 MHz category is a curation of 148 web resources on , OCF 2 Meter Sleeve Dipole Antenna, Simple VHF Antenna, Dish antenna for 2 meters band. For this month we wanted to explore how much bandwidth is taken up by a Ham Band FM signal as compared to SSB and CW. FM101x-New To FM Repeaters? DX101x - 235 Pages of Real DX Secrets For HF and Six Meters. Constructed out of a combination of 3/4 inch and 1/2 inch copper tubing. Because the IF bandwidth in a narrow-band radio must be 1/2 the bandwidth of a wide-band radio, the over-the-air data rate will be 1/2 also. It offers the lowest angle of radiation of any mobile VHF antenna and may very well be the best kept secret among those in the know. Annex 2 contains the method used for determining the necessary bandwidth of the unmodulated pulses. Power Input - 300 watts FM** Wind Rating - 85 Pattern - Omni * Bandwidth is within 2:1 SWR. 5 kHz on the UHF-T land-mobile band, 25 kHz on 2 meters, and so forth. 125 x wavelength = 0. 200 kHz on the broadcast FM band (88-108 MHz), 12. 5 MHz Receiver for OMA-2500 station · FM Receiver with Auto-scan · 220 MHz to 400 MHz Air-band Scanner · HF Regenerative Receiver with Dual-Gate MOSFET · Simple FM Receiver with Audio Amplifier · 6m / 2m FM Receiver · 20m DCR with Active Filter. it has a power amplification factor of 9 to 12 dB (9 to 15 times). 4000, October 1996, "prohibits restrictions that impair… antennas used to receive video…. Make sure the antenna is mounted free and clear of any parasitical influences such as nearby metal objects, or human bodies!. The primary problem is that PVC tubing has a significant velocity factor which causes RF to slow down. Tube, Length is 115 inches (2 piece) In Line (Direct Feed) Gamma Match with SO239 Connector. located in the ISS FGB Service Module (Zarya), supports 2 meter (144-146 MHz) and 70 cm (435-438 MHz) operation. 240 MHz TX Waco RPTR W5NCD Larry Every day 145. The SA604A features higher IF bandwidth (25 MHz) and temperature compensated RSSI and limiters providing wide RSSI dynamic. (3/2 λ) doublet with 31 (1/4 λ) ft of ladder line, then fed with coax. I received a call from a friend tonight saying he was having problems with setting up his 6400 to work on 10 meters FM mode for repeater operation. Whether you're operating on 2 meters or you work in the 1. Bandwidth KHz. The term and technology is used in both telecommunications and signal processing. Just starting out in the hobby. 1mG to 10mG), and E-field bandwidth of 50Hz-50KHz with sensitivity of 10v/m to 1000v/m. MURS Two Way Radio. 001 to 2000 microwatts/cm2). Compared with the fast modes (JT9E-H), FT8 is significantly more sensitive, has much smaller bandwidth, uses the vertical waterfall, and offers multi-decoding over the full displayed passband. **Default values; bandwidth is adjustable via DSP settings. The higher the frequency (5. The license privileges of amateur radio operators include the use of frequencies within this band for telecommunication, usually conducted locally within a range of about 100 miles. No tuning Wideband 38MHz bandwidth Low SWR 20" tall 1/4 No tuning 140 MHz bandwidth 2. Between 5 and 15 kHz: Term. ventional 2-meter J-Pole? First of all, a half-wave 2 meter antenna does resonate at UHF. au PL-880 4 1 10 2 8 7 17 18 16 19 20 25 11 21 26 15 23 3 5 27 13 6 12 4 9 14 22 28 24 Power / Sleep button FM / AM / LW / SW & ATS (Auto Tuning Storage). The application relate to transfer present assignee and with the present patent application in the application of submitting on the same day (lawyer's case 2003-0056-01) that is entitled as " Method and Apparatus for Measuring Bandwidth of an Optical Output of a Laser ", its disclosure. 5 to 108 MHz. 2 RF Bandwidth The signal generated in the stereo coder is frequency-modulated in an exciter. FM / MW / LW Band & FM / MW ATS Button 17. Southern California Open 440MHz FM Voice Repeaters Last Updated 1/16/2020. Wide Analyzer 10 kHz to 50 MHz in 1, 2, 5 sequence Effective RBW Range 19 Hz to 25 kHz (Effective RBW calculated based on FFT window type and Span) Power Bandwidth Offset Range 0 to ±2. (2) The FM bandwidth can easily cover entire musical range of the human ear of about 20 kHz, and that is why FM radio sounds better than AM radio. 1 Mbps of the Bluetooth 4. The meter is now showing your SWR on channel one. Besides home. 5:1 bandwidth = 6. Power Input - 1000 watts PEP** Wind Load (sq. (Previously 50 Watts ERP)Take notice of One(1) Frequency Change since March, 2012. The bandwidth factor calculated in this way can be used if the antenna is scaled to another band and the same impedance feeder is used. May vary with environment. A Five-Element, 2-Meter Yagi for $20 (457,324 bytes, PDF file) QST July 1999, pp. is a blend of technical expertise and common sense approach to accommodating your needs. ---PI1DFT WebSDR --- This is the PI1DFT WebSDR receiver, located in Delft. 4 Hz to arm the timer. * * * * * * * * * 2 meters: (FM) Every day 7 am EST 144. 2 MHz default preamp selection. 1 mGauss to 199. This bandwidth range is marked as FM on the band scales of radio receivers, and the devices that are able to receive such signals are called FM receivers. FM frequencies for radio stations in the UK. FM demodulation is a key process in the reception of a frequency modulated signal. The degree of enhancement can also be set manually for mainband use. With the above arrangement, the AGC amount of the AGC circuit of the FM front-end portion is changed such that the control signal Φ 8 is changed in accordance with the amplitude of the signal meter output voltage V M, i. 75-MHz dipole is scaled to operate at 14. The satellite uplink is in the 70 cm band and the downlink is in the 2 meter band C. Amateur Radio Society. 5 Mhz, is where routers have to live. Build your own inexpensive 6 meter dipole. 175MHz, and the VSWR is better than 1. 975 Mhz 2 m Simplex 146. 84 CW, digital; 1. A sweep of the antenna showed why: The antenna was resonant at a frequency 2. The meter is a perfect addition to any power supply, battery chargers and other electronic projects where voltage and current must be monitored. Features a high-strength die-cast 3-hole aluminum base. 535 Mhz 440 Simplex 446. It is widely available to Technician basic ham license (or higher) ham operators in USA. The Kenwood TM-D700 radio. Two three-element 6-meter Yagi designs. 792458 wavelength in meters. Over the last six months, I have switched to a 12 channel mixer (Yamaha MG12XU) to consolidate the out from 3 different radios ( flex6300 David Hickman , 9 hours ago. Find many great new & used options and get the best deals for Cushcraft A148-10s 10 Element 2 Meter Yagi Antenna 144 - 148mhz at the best online prices at eBay! Free shipping for many products!. 34-37 Get about 10dB from a modified Radio Shack FM broadcast receiving antenna. Resources listed under Quad Antennas category belongs to Antennas main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. PO-101 (Diwata-2) Uplink FM (141. The radiation pattern on 2 Meters won’t be the greatest but, you will probably find that as a mobile antenna on your car, this system works well for the entire HF through 2 Meter spectrum. The result is lower loss and wider bandwidth. 30Mhz = 10 Meters. VR14 Adjust for 100% modulation depth to where lobes just meet. The ideal value of VSWR should be 1:1 for effective radiation. Just picked up a 6m FM HT and now it's time to program it. In the “Playback Settings”, you can now adjust your data usage per screen. It's easy to set up and use. 5,1,2,4,5nm 190-1100nm Scanning Uv/vis Spectrophotometer , Find Complete Details about Bioabse Low Price Lab Spectral Bandwidth 0. So, using the very soft keying envelope from Figure 2 (or Figure 3…), the carrier starts out with zero amplitude, slowly rises, and accelerates as it climbs through 50%. This lightweight package is designed to be used as a desktop radio at home or in portable applications. 012 MHz, or 12 kHz. Shop for 2 Meter Antennas here. Unlicensed operation on the AM and FM radio broadcast bands is permitted for some extremely low powered devices covered under Part 15 of the FCC's rules. The DBJ-1 not only resonates, but also performs as a ½ wave radiator on both bands. Since most audio recorders are expected to provide reasonable record/reproduce response up to 18 kHz [2] , the upper limit of carrier plus measurement bandwidth can be chosen as 18 kHz. 7dB(v) of gain from a 50 ohm source. Normally it is set to “Auto” but you can force it to play at low quality (up to 0. 45 – V V 13– 100 V in = 100dBµ, Pin13 Voltage 4. If you use Winlink email, or correspond regularly with someone who does, please donate to ARSFI. The FT-450D can also be used mobile with the MMB-90 convenient mobile bracket accessory. In figure A-2, the bandwidth of the signal is 4 kHz. 025 Mhz 2 m Simplex 146. This is an excerpt from our book on RTL-SDR which we've decided to post given that many new users struggle to understand all the settings in SDR#. , DCS uses digital data or code words. FM IF System (Quadrature Detector) for Car Radio Features 1. Ready stok PLL FM 5 Watt Multi Control Harga Rp. 001 resolution. An A radio broadcasting signal, for example, takes 10 kHz, while an FM stereo signal requires. 55 MHz FM Simplex is the primary VHF Ham Survivalist local channel. 2 The first is horizontally po-larized for CW and SSB use at the low end of the 6 meter band (50-51 MHz) and the second is vertically polarized for FM use at the upper portion (52-54 MHz). Next, strip the bottom 2 inches of insulation from the wire. Clock Button 11. Portable & Desktop double-conversion receiver with FM-Stereo, Long Wave, Medium Wave, Short Wave, VHF Air-band. It is not a restriction on FM per se but a restriction on the allowed bandwidth. * Impedance - 50-75 ohms Freq. 0 vdc - 25 amps: 19"W x 6. 5 Mhz, is where routers have to live. Standard FM repeater “offsets” (difference between output and input frequencies) are: 2 meter band 600 KHz. 930 Digital. * * * * * * * * * 2 meters: (FM) Every day 7 am EST 144. Use this page to learn how to convert between megahertz and wavelength in meters. The PR9560 is intended for land forces such as infantries, more AT AR20 Automatic Rebroadcast Station. FM multipath output, 4-ch MPX output for discrete FM broadcasts. 0125 Mhz 2 m Simplex 146. Meter Drive Voltage V13– 0 Vin = 0dBµ, Pin13 Voltage – 0 – V V 13– 70 V in = 70dBµ, Pin13 Voltage 0. If you’re lucky enough to be able to stream high quality video, you can expect to consume 3GB to 7GB per hour. 2 Meter Fm Wide Or Narrow The Utah VHF Society 2 meter and 70cm Simplex Frequency Usage (Wasatch Front Area Only) Note: If you organize and/or belong to a group that often uses one or more simplex frequency (on any band) and your group is not listed correctly below, please contact the simplex frequency manager (below) with the "when and where. Step Two: If you can't measure the notch response at 100. DRM reception in the MF (530 kHz to 1720 kHz), HF (2. MPX adapter power. 99 shipping. 2 MHz default preamp selection. Includes analog output and non-rechargeable batteries. Bandwidth — The difference between the highest and lowest frequency component of a signal (frequency modulation) — An operating mode commonly used on ham radio repeaters. C/F • Field of View 8:1 optics ratio • Emissivity set to 0. * Impedance - 50-75 ohms Freq. The degree of enhancement can also be set manually for mainband use. 2kHz bandwidth 8K10F1E - P25, phase 1, 12. A wide/narrow IF bandwidth control effectively controls annoying sideband interference. For an SWR of 2, the antenna has a bandwidth from 138 MHz to 151 MHz which is a pretty good result. 45 GHz frequency range used by ovens. The final calculation is 31. While narrower bandwidths still increase selectivity over wider ones, the trade-off when reducing FM bandwidth is not reduced high frequency response per se…it is increased distortion. An LPDA for 2 Meters Plus (839,246 bytes, PDF file) QST October 2001, pp. We have improved both the pattern and gain to give you better FM coverage. The smooth response is shown in Figure 14. 2 end-caps to suit 20mm conduit and optionally, for mounting of the completed collinear antenna: 2 clamps to suit 20mm conduit or metal bracket I used a length of copper wire from some scraps of 2. 5 MHz VHF 2 metre band antenna VSWR 1. in E/W favor. 7MHz (40m) Max Bandwidth [Hz] UK Usage 7. Spectrum Use Considerations Definitions: NBFM 16 kHz nominal bandwidth VNBD 12. It is also used in telemetry, radar, seismic prospecting, and monitoring newborns for seizures via EEG, two-way radio systems, music synthesis, magnetic tape-recording systems and some video-transmission systems. Technically a “power density” meter, the RF Field Strength Meter detects the electric field of radio and microwaves (RF) from. 5uw/m2 to 1. Yagi-Uda design dimensions can vary significantly with differences in element diameter, boom material, element-to-boom attachment method, and other factors that are ignored by this simple calculator. The radiation pattern on 2 Meters won’t be the greatest but, you will probably find that as a mobile antenna on your car, this system works well for the entire HF through 2 Meter spectrum. FM function sw: mute out, mute in or fm out. Sirio Antenne (PN 2408315. Auroral reflection, meteor scatter, tropospheric scatter, and tropospheric ducting Propagation phenomena at VHF frequencies. The antenna is vertically polarzied for FM work and is pretuned to the 52. Having a publicized 2 meter AM calling frequency on the ARRL band plan may go a long way in getting an unified acceptance from many U. This question and the next question you are pretty much going to have to just remember because each band has some part of the band where handheld, base and mobile FM is discourgaged. Quality Portable Spectrum Analyzer manufacturers & exporter - buy AM FM Digital Signal Analyzer , Bandwidth 1 Hz ~ 3 MHz Network Signal Analyzer from China manufacturer. The channel spacing needs to be at least as wide as the bandwidth of the signal, which allows room for each signal without interfering with the adjacent channel. Gain, beam pattern/beamwidth, bandwidth, and antenna size. 0-MHz portion of the 6-meter band with superb performance. VHF 2 Metre Mono Band FM Handheld Transceiver FT-2980R As its model name suggests, the new FT-2980R arrives with the solid feature configuration and mechanical toughness of the ever popular FT-2900R. A Five-Element, 2-Meter Yagi for $20 (457,324 bytes, PDF file) QST July 1999, pp. A key factor in absorbing unwanted electromagnetic energy efficiently and completely is selecting the most appropriate materials for the. MIKE GAIN to maximum. This will give you a tuning range of +/- 48 kHz around the Local Oscillator ("Center") frequency. The maximum permissible frequency deviation is. Once the signal has been received, filtered and amplified, it is necessary to recover the. So wideband would be preferred for being more forgiving if I'm off a little on a measurement. (3/2 λ) doublet with 31 (1/4 λ) ft of ladder line, then fed with coax. VHF Repeater FM Phone Signal: The question specifies a "VHF repeater FM phone signal. 3 include: – Update to wxWidgets 3. Providing the antenna is mounted correctly the SWR is less than 1. Dipole Antenna Calculator. 000 Mhz 2 m FM Call 146. - Mount your antenna temporary 1,5 meters from the ground for the first tests and measure the antenna length (the boom piece NOT included) at 2,95 meters and try to ground the boom. bandwidth 2700 Hz to max. Hy-Gain VB-214FM 144-148 MHz Yagi Antennas are high-gain, high-performance 2-meter beams. 0 /3 Default tones frequencies: 700 Hz, 1700 Hz, 2300 Hz Ctrl + Shift + G: FM Binary Discriminator (not for listening!) Shift + D : Change AF Spectrum Type: K: Change RF Spectrum Type: J: Change Spectrum Reference Bandwidth (PSD only) Ctrl + J. Since the Magnum S-9 has always been a favorite of mine I was interested to see how I would like it paired with the attached SX-175 amplifier system. More complex signals contain more information, and hence require wider bandwidths. The application relate to transfer present assignee and with the present patent application in the application of submitting on the same day (lawyer's case 2003-0056-01) that is entitled as " Method and Apparatus for Measuring Bandwidth of an Optical Output of a Laser ", its disclosure. 5uw/m2 to 1. 2kHz bandwidth 8K10F1E - P25, phase 1, 12. Perfect resolution filters for OSNR measurement ! Several resolution filters between 5 MHz and 250 GHz are available. 7 Differences between a Narrowband and a Wideband Meter Written 2. HF — High frequency. – Peak FM Deviation ≥ 200 Hz – ß ≥ 0. Wide bandwidth, (4+ MHz across the 2 meter band). com has Cheat sheet: What you need to know about 802. We have improved both the pattern and gain to give you better FM coverage. Volt Ampere Meter measures voltage of 0-70V or 0-500V with 100mV resolution and current consumption 0-10A or more with 10mA resolution. * Impedance - 50-75 ohms Freq. 525 Mhz calling frequency. The fractional bandwidth equals 2(fM - fL)/ (fM + fL). 2 GHz band, DX Engineering has a VHF/UHF beam antenna. 6 to 108 MHz. 995 MHz RX AM: 108-136 MHz. 1) Electrons rush up and down the transmitter, shooting out radio waves. Cushcraft A148 3S Yagi Antenna. trunk lid) using a K400 or K600 series mount. Resources listed under Quad Antennas category belongs to Antennas main collection, and get reviewed and rated by amateur radio operators. 2 limits the bandwidth of a signal to "not exceed that of a communications quality A3E emission". The separate bass and treble controls do help tailor the sound based on the audio source. Built in audible alarm at 1 mW/cm². Gold plated spade. Cornet ED88T (0. But, I started setting my 6400 up to transmit on a standard 10 meter repeater frequency. The DL6WU yagi is highly regarded as being easy to build with repeatable results, broad bandwidth and a useful pattern. • Measure: Occupied Bandwidth, Channel Power, ACPR, C/I • Dynamic Range: > 104 dB in 1 Hz RBW • DANL: –160 dBm in 1 Hz RBW • Phase Noise: –100 dBc/Hz @ 10 kHz offset at 1 GHz • Frequency Accuracy: < ± 25 ppb with GPS On. Hy-Gain VB-28FM VHF-FM 8 Element 2 Meter Ham. Dipole Antenna Calculator. Volt Ampere Meter measures voltage of 0-70V or 0-500V with 100mV resolution and current consumption 0-10A or more with 10mA resolution. The PROMAX HD RANGER Eco Field Strength Meter and Spectrum Analyzer is a universal field strength meter that covers a comprehensive mix of broadcast standards around the globe. 475 MHz IN Indianapolis IN W9VMT Every day 9:00 pm CT 147. 5kHz Bandwidth 5K76G1E - P25, phase 2, 6. High Quality Designed and built with quality in mind. A CW signal requires much less bandwidth than any other communication mode. When rounding the speed of light to 300,000,000 m/s you get: Worldwide FM radio is operating in VHF band II between 87. If you transmit FM wider than the bandwidth of the receiver your signal will go outside of the receiver bandpass and clip. This is achieved by slightly phase staggering the signal to each dipole. For the purpose of this standard, fixed and base station FM receivers are classified by their operating frequencies. There is some debate as to the effectiveness of changing a scanners bandwidth to narrow. Different modes use different amounts of bandwidth; if you are using a narrow receive bandwidth and the mode is wide FM, you will only "hear" a portion of the signal. 8kHz bandwidth from channel center. 5 kHz deviation signals to be heard. Made From a TV Satellite Dish. 5kHz Channel Both 2-for-1 and 4-for-1 efficiencies may be realized by splitting existing channels. No tuning Wideband 38MHz bandwidth Low SWR 20" tall 1/4 No tuning 140 MHz bandwidth 2. 505 Mhz 440 FM Call 446. 2; 40 meter double extended zepp, 165ft long at 60 ft high. 5uw/m² to 1. Applying this to a ham transceiver running ‘belly band’ (3 kHz), we’d have 6 + 6 kHz or an occupied bandwidth of 12 kHz. FM / MW / LW Band & FM / MW ATS Button 17. 1 IC-7100 User Evaluation & Test Report By Adam Farson VA7OJ/AB4OJ Iss. 400 Propagation Beacon Network Exclusive (10) 432. On the VHF-UHF bands, the grouping of modes is slightly different. Help keep the fun rolling by writing about your own failures and sending us a link to the story — or sending in. Special Functions: Shortwave Dual Conversion Frequency Range : FM: 87 - 108 MHz MW (AM): 52 5 1710 kHz SWI: 5. Now Packaged with Both SSB and FM Elements. Because most amateur radio 2-meter and 70-cm repeaters in the US use Wide bandwidth for analog FM, your amateur radio should also be set for Wide. This corresponds to the "25 kHz" or "Wide" setting on your handheld and mobile radios. I don't have an SWR meter. -/+ PAGE buttons 9. A narrow band signal only has 2. * Impedance - 50-75 ohms Freq. If sub-assembly filters or other bandwidth restricting components are within the DUT it will compromise the Noise Figure Measurement. (ARSFI), a non-profit public benefit corporation. other modes with bandwidth less than 3 khz – fax, sstv, rtcalling frequency (1) 144. (2) Military VHF-High Band Bandplans: Military communications can also be found in the following government band mixed in with various govenment agencies communications: 162.